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Study Guide of Networking Terminology and Their Meanings


Study Guide of Networking Terminology and Their Meanings


Networking Terminology

Networking Terminology

 


This post will go over some basics of networking terminology which are useful for you. Network We use it daily. It can be in form of Computer network, Internet and other which you use for the sharing Document over the Network or Internet. I Hope this Post will help you under stand the meanings of Network Terminology.


ISP 

An ISP provides Internet service to individuals and businesses. Typical options for high-speed Internet access include DSL and cable. Your Internet service provider is the company that provides you with your Internet connection. For example, your ISP may be BSNL, IDEA, AIRTEL or whatever other company you’re paying each month for your Internet Service.

IP Address

IP Address – Stands for Internet Protocol Address. Every device, when connected to a network, is assigned an IP Address. This allows your device to communicate with other devices and available network resources. Think of this as your cell’s phone number, allowing you to receive and make calls, send text messages, and access other services.

Server

Server – a computer or application that is hosting a service. A Mail Server, for example, is generally a computer that is hosting, or providing, email services. If you use Gmail-Mail, Then You Need to Login and autenicate into Gmail’s Mails Server, Which you Daily to check you E-mails.

Firewall

Firewall – a specialized type of server. ALL data transmitted over a network is assigned a specific port number, based on the type of data it is. For example, standard website traffic (http) is usually assigned port 80. Secure website traffic, like when you login to your bank account, is usually assigned port 443.

Different Types of Networks

There are many types of computer networks. Common types of networks include the following:

Local-area network (LAN): The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building).

Wide-area network (WAN): The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves.

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Metropolitan-area network (MAN): A data network designed for a town or city.

Home-area network (HAN):  A network contained within a user’s home that connects a person’s digital devices.

Virtual private network (VPN):  A network that is constructed by using public wires — usually the Internet — to connect to a private network, such as a company’s internal network.

Storage area network (SAN): A high-speed network of storage devices that also connects those storage devices with servers.


NETWORK

NETWORK


Connection

Connection: In networking, a connection refers to pieces of related information that are transfered through a network. This generally infers that a connection is built before the data transfer (by following the procedures laid out in a protocol) and then is deconstructed at the at the end of the data transfer.

Data Packet

Data Packet: A packet is, generally speaking, the most basic unit that is transfered over a network. When communicating over a network, packets are the envelopes that carry your data (in pieces) from one end point to the other.

Malware

Malware: Short for malicious software, malware is software code that is designed to damage files or entire computer systems, steal data, disrupt network, and do generally bad things to computers, networks, and people. Malware consists of viruses, worms, Trojans, spyware, adware, backdoors, rootkits, and bots.

Phishing

Phishing: Phishing (pronounced like fishing) e-mails are a type of spam used by identity thieves to trick an individual into revealing private data, such as banking account information or passwords. Many phishing attempts appear to come from a legitimate sender such as your bank, and may even include authentic logos and links to the actual bank’s Web site (as well as other links that may install other malware or take you to a malicious Web site).

Rootkit

Rootkit: A rootkit (or backdoor) is a program that allows an attacker to covertly gain access to your computer in order to steal data, do damage, or control your computer.

Service Set Identifier (SSID)

Service Set Identifier (SSID): An SSID uniquely identifies your wireless network and is broadcast by your wireless access point.

Spyware

Spyware: Spyware quietly collects information about users on your computer or network. Spyware can be used to monitor a computer user’s activities or even log keystrokes.

Trojan

Trojan: A Trojan (or Trojan horse) is malware that masquerades as legitimate software. Once a Trojan has been installed on a computer, it can do extensive damage to a computer or network, including deleting files, stealing data, and installing other viruses.

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Worm

Worm: A worm is similar to a virus, but does not require a host program or file and can replicate and infect computers with human action. Worms typically take advantage of a known vulnerability or bug in a computer program or operating system.

Protocol

Protocol: A protocol is a set of rules and standards that basically define a language that devices can use to communicate. There are a great number of protocols in use extensively in networking, and they are often implemented in different layers.

Port

When an application wants to send or receive traffic, it has to use a numbered port between 1 to 65535. This is how you can have multiple applications on a computer using the network and each application knows which traffic is for it.

Standard HTTP uses port 80, so when you’re connecting to http://howtogeek.com, you’re really making an HTTP connection to port 80 on howtogeek.com. The web server software on howtogeek.com is listening to traffic arriving on port 80. You could attempt to connect on port 81 by plugging http://howtogeek.com:81/ into your web browser, but you wouldn’t get a response because the web server software isn’t listening on port 81.

Router

A router is a device that passes traffic back and forth. You likely have a home router. It’s that router’s job to pass outgoing traffic from your local devices to the Internet, and to pass incoming traffic from the Internet to your devices.

Gateway

A gateway is a device that routes traffic between networks. For example, at home, your router is your gateway. It provides a “gateway” between your LAN and WAN.

Ethernet

Ethernet is the standard wired network technology in use almost everywhere today. If your computer is connected to a network via a cable, it’s likely using an Ethernet cable. That cable plugs into an Ethernet port on your computer.

RJ45

RJ-45 is most common type of network adapter connection (ethernet cable). RJ-11 for Phone cable Adapter.

VoIP

VoIP – Stands for Voice over Internet Protocol (IP) this is an emerging service that has been growing and developing quite a bit as of late. The old traditional telephone systems haven’t changed in many many years; but with the increasing demand for additional features like video calls, teleconferences, multimedia presentations and more they just are not capable of keeping up with the newer demands. VoIP however, uses an Internet connection to supply those services and more. Some examples of VoIP technology are Skype, Google Voice, and Vonage. Also, most cellular smartphones provide the ability to utilize VoIP services.

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HTTP

The hypertext transfer protocol is the standard protocol modern web browsers and the web itself uses.

URL

A uniform resource locator, or URL, is also known as a web address. The current URL is displayed in your web browser’s address bar. For example, http://YouMeGeek.com/article is an URL that tells your computer to use the hypertext transfer protocol HTTP to connect to the server at YouMegeeK.com and ask for the file named article in the root directory.

Access Point

A hardware device or a computer’s software that acts as a communication hub for users of a wireless device to connect to a wired LAN.

Modem

Modem (modulator-demodulator): A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or cable lines. Modem is Main Hardware to Run the Internet on Computer or Smart-phone.

Operating System

Operating System:  Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs, called application programs, can run. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.

Network Interface Card (NIC)

Network Interface Card (NIC):  An expansion board you insert into a computer so the computer can be connected to a network. Most NICs are designed for a particular type of network, protocol, and media, although some can serve multiple networks.

Hub

Hub: A common connection point for devices in a network. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets.

Switch

Switch: A device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. Switches operate at the data link layer (layer 2) and sometimes the network layer (layer 3) of the OSI Reference Model.

Conclusion

At this point, you should be familiar with some basic networking terminology and be able to understand how different components are able to communicate with each other. Please Comment below and let others know about Network Terminology which is not mentioned in the Blog Post as it will be very helpful for others who is leaning about Networks.

Thank you for Reading and Sharing.


 

Gurjit Singh is Microsoft Certified IT Professional. He likes to write about Computer Network, WordPress, Blogging Tips, SEO, Make Money Online, Computer Tips and Creating Tech Tutorials.
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